Dentalcare logo

The 2018 AAP/EFP Classification of Periodontal & Peri-implant Diseases

Course Number: 610

References / Additional Resources

  1. Armitage GC. Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions. Ann Periodontol. 1999;4:1-6.

  2. Caton JG, Armitage G, Berglundh T, et al. A new classification scheme for periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions - Introduction and key changes from the 1999 classification. J Periodontol. 2018;89 Suppl 1:S1‐S8. doi:10.1002/JPER.18-0157.

  3. Caton JG, Armitage G, Berglundh T, et al. A new classification scheme for periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions - Introduction and key changes from the 1999 classification. J Clin Periodontol. 2018;45 Suppl 20:S1‐S8. doi:10.1111/jcpe.12935.

  4. Allen W. The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology: Implications for Human Health, Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Dysbiosis, 1st ed. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2016.

  5. Tonetti MS, Greenwell H, Kornman KS. Staging and grading of periodontitis: Framework and proposal of a new classification and case definition [published correction appears in J Periodontol. 2018 Dec;89(12):1475]. J Periodontol. 2018;89 Suppl 1:S159‐S172. doi:10.1002/JPER.18-0006.

  6. Berglundh T, Armitage G, Araujo MG, et al. Peri-implant diseases and conditions: Consensus report of workgroup 4 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. J Clin Periodontol. 2018;45 Suppl 20:S286‐S291. doi:10.1111/jcpe.12957.

  7. Chapple ILC, Mealey BL, Van Dyke TE, et al. Periodontal health and gingival diseases and conditions on an intact and a reduced periodontium: Consensus report of workgroup 1 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. J Clin Periodontol. 2018;45 Suppl 20:S68‐S77. doi:10.1111/jcpe.12940.

  8. Bradburne C, Hamosh A. Integrating the microbiome into precision medicine. Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development. 2016;1(6):475–77. doi:10.1080/23808993.2016.1259562. Accessed Aug. 2, 2023.

  9. Lexico. Oxford Dictionary. Accessed Aug. 2, 2023 .

  10. World Health Organization. Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference. Official Records of the World Health Organization 1948;19456 No.2:1. Accessed Aug. 2, 2023.

  11. Lang NP, Bartold PM. Periodontal health. J Periodontol. 2018;89 Suppl 1:S9‐S16. doi:10.1002/JPER.16-0517.

  12. Trombelli L, Farina R, Silva CO, Tatakis DN. Plaque-induced gingivitis: Case definition and diagnostic considerations. J Clin Periodontol. 2018;45 Suppl 20:S44‐S67. doi:10.1111/jcpe.12939.

  13. NIH Human Microbiome Project Accessed Aug. 2, 2023.

  14. Zhu B, Wang X, Li L. Human gut microbiome: the second genome of human body. Protein Cell. 2010;1(8):718‐725. doi:10.1007/s13238-010-0093-z.

  15. Deo PN, Deshmukh R. Oral microbiome: Unveiling the fundamentals. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2019;23:122-8.

  16. Van Dyke T, Bartold PM, Reynolds EC. The nexus between periodontal inflammation and dysbiosis. Frontiers in Immunology 2020;11:511

  17. Papapanou PN, Sanz M, Buduneli N, et al. Periodontitis: Consensus report of workgroup 2 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. J Clin Periodontol. 2018;45 Suppl 20:S162‐S170. doi:10.1111/jcpe.12946.

  18. Jepsen S, Caton JG, Albandar JM, et al. Periodontal manifestations of systemic diseases and developmental and acquired conditions: Consensus report of workgroup 3 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. J Periodontol. 2018;89 Suppl 1:S237‐S248. doi:10.1002/JPER.17-0733.

  19. Kornman K, Papapanou PN. 4-step approach to implementing the new staging and grading system for periodontitis. Paper presented at EuroPerio 9. Proceedings of the European Federation of Periodontology, 2018 June 20-23, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  20. Wang X, Han X, Guo X, Luo X, Wang D. The effect of periodontal treatment on hemoglobin a1c levels of diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e108412. Published 2014 Sep 25. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108412.

Additional Resources


No Additional Resources Available